Non-tangible information, knowledge and concepts related to data, people and things that are obtained by observation, investigation, visualization and mental creation. Written data take the form of numbers, words and symbols. Other data are ideas, conceptualization and oral verbalization.
Integrating analyses of data to discover facts and/or develop knowledge, concepts and interpretations.
Determining time, place and sequence of operations or actions to be taken based on analysis of data; executing determinations and/or reporting events.
Examining and evaluating data; frequently presenting alternative action in relation to the evaluation.
Accumulating information usually recorded physically but which may be stored mentally; gathering, collating and classifying information about data, people and things; frequently reporting and/or carrying out a prescribed action in relation to the information.
Performing arithmetical operations and reporting on, and/or carrying out, prescribed action in relation to them; does not include counting.
Carrying out a set of explicit procedural/operational functions or processes based on an understanding of instructions or information necessary to perform the work.*
Identifying the obvious functional, structural or compositional characteristics (in terms of similarity with, or difference from, established standards) of data, people and things.*
The functional digit 7 is not used in the Data column.
Human beings; also includes animals dealt with on an individual basis.
Dealing with individuals in terms of their total personalities in order to advise, counsel and/or guide them with regard to problems that may be resolved by legal, scientific, clinical, spiritual and/or other professional principles.
Exchanging ideas, information and opinions with others to arrive jointly at decisions, conclusions or solutions; often collaborating with others to formulate policies and programs.
Instructing – Consulting
Teaching subject matter to others, giving advice or training others (including animals) through explanation, demonstration and supervised practice; making recommendations on the basis of subject matter expertise.**
Determining or interpreting work procedures for a group or team of workers, assigning specific duties to them, maintaining harmonious relations and promoting efficiency.
Providing entertainment in one or more forms.
Influencing others in favour of a product, service or point of view.
Speaking – Signalling
Talking with and/or signalling people to convey or exchange information; giving assignments and/or directions to helpers.
Serving – Assisting
Attending to the needs and requests of people or animals or the expressed and implicit wishes of people; helping and supporting other workers in the performance of tasks.***
Tangible and/or virtual objects that include the body, substances, materials, machines, tools, equipment, products and/or systems.****
Adjusting machines or equipment by replacing or altering tools, jigs, fixtures and attachments to prepare them for operation, change performance or restore proper functioning if they break down.
Using the body and/or equipment to move, guide, place, install and/or interface with objects, in order to attain specifications and precise standards. Considerable judgment is required to select, adjust and utilize appropriate tools, products and/or materials to accomplish specified objectives.
Starting, stopping, controlling and adjusting machines and equipment designed to fabricate and/or process objects or materials. Operating machines involves minimal set up and adjustment as the work progresses. Controlling equipment involves observing gauges, dials and other indicators, and turning valves and other devices to control factors such as temperature, pressure, flow of liquids, speed of pumps and reactions of materials.
Driving – Operating
Starting, stopping and running machines and equipment that must be steered or guided in order to fabricate process and/or move things or people. Involves activities such as observing gauges and dials, estimating distances and determining speed and direction of other objects, pushing clutches or brakes, and pushing or pulling gear shifts or levers. Includes such machines as cranes, conveyor systems, tractors, and hoisting machines. Excludes manually powered and power-assisted machines.
Operating – Manipulating
Using the body, tools or special devices to operate equipment or move, guide, install and place objects or materials. Requires a significant combination of motor co-ordination and manual and finger dexterity. Involves some latitude for judgment with regard to precision and selection of appropriate tool, object or material.
Starting, stopping and observing machines and equipment; adjusting materials or controls of the machine such as changing guides, adjusting timers and temperature gauges, turning valves to allow flow of materials and flipping switches in response to lights. Minimal judgment is involved in making these adjustments.
Feeding – Offbearing
Inserting, throwing, dumping or placing materials in or removing them from machines or equipment that are automatic or operated by other workers.
Using the body, hand tools and/or special devices to work, move or carry objects or materials. The attainment of standards or the selection of appropriate tool, object or material is not significant.
Change from CCDO, Volume 2 and the first edition of the Career Handbook - the definitions for Levels 5 and 6 of Data were revised to provide a clearer distinction between the Copying and Comparing functions.
Change from CCDO, Volume 2 – the label Consulting was added to People Level 2 to reflect the shift in Canada from an industry- to knowledge-based economy in which consulting has become a prevalent activity.
Change from CCDO, Volume 2 – the label Assisting was added to People Level 7 to reflect the increase in occupations that provide support functions.
Modifications to the explanations of the Things factor and its levels reflect the inclusion of information technology and scientific advancement. The broader concept of things provides a more accurate indication of the nature of work in the knowledge-based economy without weakening the integrity of the factor. The level distinctions remain the same as does the differentiation between the Things and Data factors, although these two factors seem to be increasingly interdependent.